Below, I’ve detailed (briefly) why, when you rotate your head counter-clockwise, you see a response pattern of depolarization -> baseline -> hyperpolarization.
I want to note that the hair cell is embedded in the cupula (a gel capsule) which is effected by the endolymph which is sloshing around in your semicircular canals.
A brief screencast for labeled line vs. across fiber encoding.
- 1 sensory neuron receives input from only taste receptor cells that only have 1 taste receptor type
- 1 sensory neuron receives input from taste receptor cells that have more than 1 taste receptor type
- 1 sensory neuron receives input from taste receptors cells that only express only 1 taste receptor type, but from many different types of taste receptor cells (each only expressing only 1 taste receptor type)
Update: Included another way of visualizing.
Below are mental scaffolds for organizing pathways. I’ve included the descending pathway as well for modulation of pain perception.
Once again, note:
- Cross-over (decussation points)
One thing to note, Lissauer’s Tract does not ascend into the brainstem… it is part of the first order neuron which may go up or down the spinal cord a bit before terminating onto the substantia gelatinosa.
A diagram (used for keeping track of converging evidence) for the excellent 2nd GSI lecture on the cytoskeletal role on neuronal polarity. Gabriella will have a better understanding, so I make no claim to the comprehensiveness or accuracy, but may provide a mental scaffold for studying the actual slide material.
Experimental evidence & Conclusions
This is a test of screencasting technology. As a test, I’ve detailed why and how a synapse is defined as excitatory or inhibitory.
Essentially, if ERev < threshold: inhibitory, or ERev > threshold: excitatory.
Please let me know if you’d like to see this in the future.
For studying the neuroanatomy of the nervous system, its important to draw these tracts over and over again.
Important things to note:
- Where do the tracts cross over to the other side (first order, second order, third order neurons)?
- Where are the cell bodies? (structure)
- What are the tracts called?
Below are a few flowcharts that may be helpful in studying. I make no claims that they are comprehensive or exclusive. However, I use them to keep track of material, and may be of use in your studying.
CNS/PNS & spinal cord organization